Nowadays X-ray and tomographic methods help detect very fine structures inside objects. For spatial resolutions down to 100 nanometers, diffractive X-ray optics are available today. However, various challenges have to be overcome to obtain a three-dimensional image with volume resolution in this range.
It is a major challenge to achieve the extremely high mechanical accuracy and stability required for the alignment of the optics and samples in the X-ray beam and for the entire experimental setup. Even minute changes in temperature or vibrations could degrade the desired resolution. This is why the improvement of the X-ray optics must always go hand in hand with the mechanical perfection of the entire setup.