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Table 2. Joint Properties

Property Horizontal Joints Vertical Joints
Normal stiffness (GPa/m) 50 50
Shear stiffness (GPa/m) 5 5
Friction angle (degrees) 30 35
Cohesion 0 0
Dilation angle (degrees) 0 5
Initial aperture (mm) 20 10
Residual aperture (mm) 10 5