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Table 1: Penstock characteristics

Type Dimensions Thickness Length Wave speed Reflection time
Open air channel 6.85 X 1.5m 202.8m
Concrete tunnel 2.5m X 1.5m 0.7m 321.1m 1.180/sec 0.54secs
Cast iron 1800mm 21mm 254.5m 940m/sec 2.05secs
GRP 1800mm 36mm 768.4m 750m/sec 2.05secs
Steel and concrete coating 1800mm 6mm/25cm 357.1m 1070m/sec 0.67secs
Whole penstock 1701.1m 895m/sec 3.8secs