Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. For various heating processes steam is used as heat carrier for evaporating solvents in distillation columns, drying processes, reactor columns, etc. Roughly a quarter of the oil and gas consumed in the process industry is used to generate steam. As steam production is in most cases one of the largest energy users and plant arrangements are often outdated, improvements can lead to significant energy savings. Besides saving costs, enterprises are taking more responsibility nowadays for their impact on society and therefore focus on improving energy efficiency. MVR can be a solution for reducing your energy costs and carbon footprint significantly.
The basic principle of MVR is recycling unused low-value steam, mechanically converted into high-value steam while preserving its latent energy, reaching COP values up to 10.
After a short introduction of MVR, this article describes the Radiax® compressor. This compressor has been developed by Bronswerk and has several advantages in comparison to conventional compressors. Many of these advantages are relevant for MVR.
The Principle of MVR
During MVR, a mechanically driven compressor increases the pressure of a steam flow. The compressor operates as a heat pump by adding energy to the vapour. Contrary to the compression heat pump with its separate circulating fluid (closed system), MVR operates as an open system. In an open heat pump system the process fluid (in this case steam) is also acting as the circulating fluid. Due to the elimination of the evaporator, condenser and separate circulating fluid, high COPs, up to 10, can be obtained.
An example MVR cycle is illustrated in the log(p)-h water vapour diagram (figure 1). The mechanical work delivered by the compressor is depicted as dH. Steam leaving the compressors is slightly superheated due to the dissipated thermal and mechanical losses of the compressor. If favourable, the superheated steam can be tempered or de-superheated to its saturation point by injecting boiler feed water (BFW) in order to attain the required process conditions.
Radiax® Compressor Technology
Different types of compressors such as centrifugal fans, turbo-compressors and rotary root blowers are suitable as mechanical vapour compressors if operating according to the principle of continuous flow machines. However, each compressor type has its limitations on pressure ratio, volume flow and operating flexibility. Bronswerk Heat Transfer has developed a new compressor which eliminates various limitations known from conventional compressors. Figure 2 illustrates a cross section of the Radiax® compressor. The specially designed inlet rotor ensures no-stall characteristics, which result in a smooth axial pressure rise. The divergent design of the rotor contains a large number of blades. The rotor is capable of reaching tip speeds close to the speed of sound while converting flow speed in dynamic pressure. The rotor is directly driven by the electric motor. Vapour leaving the rotor enters the stator-diffusor where dynamic pressure is converted into static pressure. Vapour enters the stator-diffusor tangential and is guided by 3D designed channels ensuring a perfect transition in axial direction. The rotor, electric motor and stator-diffusor are integrated in a single casing, which minimises the amount of components and leads to a compact design.
Advantages of the Radiax® compressors compared to conventional compressors are:
To illustrate the advantages of MVR using Radiax® technology, a case study is described. A chemical plant derives its product from a reactor column that requires 7,000 kg/hr of steam at 4 bar(a). Steam is derived from a steam boiler and directly injected in the reactor column. During this process 300,000 kg/hr of condensate is generated. For this case energy prices are €25 per ton of steam and €0.06 per kWh for electricity. Assuming this plant runs for 8,600 hour per year the total energy expenses are € 1,505,000 per year.
This system can be easily optimised by adding a flash tank and Thermal Vapour Recompression (TVR) unit. By releasing the pressure of the 300,000 kg/h of condensate from 4 to 3.4 bar, 4,500 kg/hr of condensate flashes. This low-pressure steam will be upgraded by a steam ejector (acting as a thermal heat pump in this situation) where 2,500 kg/hr of high-pressure steam is necessary as driving steam. This configuration reduces the expenses on energy to €537,5000 per year.
Applying MVR using the Radiax® technology reduces the energy expenses further to only € 103,200 per year. In this scenario, pressure of the 300,000 kg/h condensate is released to 2.85 bar, flashing 7,000 kg/h of condensate to low-pressure steam. Steam derived from the flash tank is compressed in a single compression stage to 4 bar, absorbing less than 200 kW electric energy. The MVR configuration with Radiax® compressor is illustrated in figure 3. This relatively simple modification saves € 1,401,800 on energy compared to the conventional system.
MVR using Radiax® Technology is a simple and effective solution for reducing your energy costs and carbon footprint. The favourable characteristics of the Radiax® compressor create opportunities for a wide range of applications. Minor modifications are required, using only a small area of the available plot space. This solution will amortise within a very short period of approximately 2 years, despite the current fossil fuel prices. For more information please contact Geert ten Brink.